Meeting the Dual Challenge

A Roadmap to At-Scale Deployment of Carbon Capture, Use,
and Storage in the United States


Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage (CCUS) Report

    Volume I - Summary Volume

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    • Transmittal letter to the Secretary of Energy
    • Report Outline
    • Preface
    • Executive Summary
    • Roadmap to At-Scale Deployment
    • Appendix A — Request Letter and Description of the NPC
    • Appendix B: Study Group Rosters
    • List of Topic Papers
    • Cost Curve Model
    • Acronyms and Abbreviations
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  • Volume II - Analysis of CCUS Deployment At-Scale

  • Chapter 1. The Role of CCUS in the Future Energy Mix
  • Lowering emissions will require energy efficiency and increased use of renewable sources of energy (renewables), and a shift to less carbon-intensive fuels. Carbon capture, use, and storage (CCUS) is a critical component of the portfolio of solutions needed to satisfy the dual challenge.
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  • Chapter 2. CCUS Supply Chain and Economics
  • The CCUS supply chain involves the capture—separation and purification—of carbon dioxide (CO2) from stationary sources so it can be transported to a suitable location where it is used to create products or injected deep underground for safe, secure, and permanent storage.
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  • Chapter 3. Policy, Regulatory, and Legal Enablers
  • Existing policy and regulatory framework in the United States for CCUS, along with current challenges for CCUS development and deployment are examined. Three proposed phases of implementation are identified and the changes that will be needed to enable CCUS deployment at scale within the next 25 years.
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  • Chapter 4. Building Stakeholder Confidence
  • CCUS project-specific stakeholder engagement is well established in the United States. However, building widespread commitment and support through individual CCUS projects continues to be challenging. Although CCUS engagement on its own cannot guarantee success, when it is done well, it can be a significant enabler
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  • Appendix C: CCUS Project Summaries
  • Details on the case studies examined in the development of this report.
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  • Appendix D: ERM Memo - Economic Impacts of CCUS Deployment
  • An economic analysis of deploying CCUS at-scale.
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  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Explanation of the acronyms and abbreviations of this volume
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  • Volume III - Analysis of CCUS Technologies

  • Technology Introduction
  • CCUS can be delivered via a proven, safe, and well-understood suite of technologies. CCUS has been deployed on large stationary source CO2 emissions in several industries across the United States and globally,
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  • Chapter 5. CO2 Capture
  • CO2 capture technologies are a key component of (CCUS), including transport. The separation of CO2 can be accomplished through the application of four main CO2 capture technologies: absorption, adsorption, membranes, and cryogenic processes
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  • Chapter 6. CO2 Transport
  • Wide-scale deployment of CCUS will require expansion of the existing and new CO2 pipeline infrastructure CO2Rail, truck, ship, and barge are unlikely to be able to support the large volumes of CO2 associated with wide-scale deployment of CCUS. Rail and truck may be viable for shorter distances domestically, and tanker shipping may meet international CO2 transport needs.
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  • Chapter 7. CO2 Geologic Storage
  • Safe, secure, and permanent geologic storage of CO2 requires the presence of a sufficiently permeable rock formation, typically sandstone or carbonate, which is sealed by rocks on top that have a very low permeability.
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  • Chapter 8. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • CO2 EOR is a mature and regulated technology. EOR benefits the environment when CO2 from industrial sources is captured, injected, and trapped underground, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions by providing large-scale CO2 storage.
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  • Chapter 9. CO2 Use
  • Carbon is used to produce fuels, polymers, industrial chemicals, carbon nanotubes, and building products such as carbonates and cement. It is also used in the production of steel, electronics, and consumable goods. Some CO2-derived products, such as construction materials, could significantly expand their use of CO2.
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  • Appendix E: Mature CO2 Capture Technologies
  • This appendix describes the absorption carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology known as amine scrubbing.
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  • Appendix F: Emerging CO2 Capture Technologies
  • Results of a canvas of emerging capture technologies.
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  • Appendix G: CO2 EOR Case Studies
  • Case studies of enhanced oil recovery.
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  • Appendix H: CO2 EOR Economic Factors and Considerations
  • How does CCUS impact the economic equation of enhanced oil recovery.
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  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Explanation of the acronyms and abbreviations of this volume
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  • Topic Papers

  • Supply and Demand Analysis for Capture and Storage of Anthropogenic CO2 in the Central United States (Jeffrey D. Brown, Stanford University / University of Wyoming Enhanced Oil Research Institute; Poh Boon Ung, BP Group Technology)
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  • An open-technology and open-access post-combustion capture initiative for power plants in USA (Jon Gibbins, Professor, UK CCS Research Centre, University of Sheffield; William R. Elliott, Operations Manager, Infrastructure and Power, Bechtel Global Corporation)
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  • The Layered Approach to Liability for Geologic Sequestration of CO2, a paper on pore space and liability (A. Scott Anderson, Senior Policy Director, Energy Program, Environmental Defense Fund; Frederick R. Eames, Partner, Hunton Andrews Kurth)
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  • Cost Curve Model

  • Gaffney, Cline & Associates model used to generate the cost curves in this NPC report
  • A differential feature was to assess the costs to capture, transport and store CO2 from all sectors and fuel types, covering the largest facilities and a total of approximately 80% of all U.S. stationary sources. Using "reference cases" and standard economic assumptions was essential to developing the cost curve, formulating recommendations, and assessing the potential impact of those recommendations on CCUS deployment at a national level. Costs for individual projects will vary based on location factors and the economic assumptions specific to each project.

    In order to provide a useful public resource and ensure transparency of the work of the NPC CCUS study, this cost assessment tool will be hosted by Gaffney, Cline & Associates, allowing stakeholders to change the cost and financial assumptions to generate their own view of costs. We expect this tool will be available in late-January 2020, so please use the following link to access the Gaffney-Cline site to sign-up to receive an update on the model's availability.
    Link


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